) Median agetotal: 42. 8 yearsmale: 41. 3 yearsfemale: 44. 4 years (2020 est. )total: 41. 1 yearsmale: 40. 1 yearsfemale: 42. 1 years (2020 est. ) Population growth rate0. 26% (2021 est. )0. 74% (2021 est. ) Birth rate10. 49 births/1, 000 population (2021 est. )11. 93 births/1, 000 population (2021 est. ) Death rate10. 33 deaths/1, 000 population (2021 est. )9. 39 deaths/1, 000 population (2021 est. ) Net migration rate2. 46 migrant(s)/1, 000 population (2021 est. )4. 87 migrant(s)/1, 000 population (2021 est.
549 billion (2019 est. )$536. 301 billion (2018 est. )$911. 317 billion (2019 est. )$1, 012, 171, 000, 000 (2018 est. ) Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -0. 82771 (2020 est. 90338 (2019 est. 87789 (2018 est. 885 (2014 est. 7634 (2013 est. )Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -8. 49085 (2020 est. 52915 (2019 est. 01895 (2018 est. )8. 4335 (2014 est. 8612 (2013 est. ) Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year Public debt61.
D. Government typeparliamentary republicparliamentary constitutional monarchy Capitalname: Helsinkigeographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 Etime difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in Octoberetymology: the name may derive from the Swedish "helsing, " an archaic name for "neck" ("hals"), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; "fors" refers to "rapids, " so "helsing fors" meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"name: Stockholmgeographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in Octoberetymology: "stock" and "holm" literally mean "log" and "islet" in Swedish, but there is no consensus as to what the words refer to Administrative divisions19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland Independence6 December 1917 (from Russia)6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) National holidayIndependence Day, 6 December (1917)National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day Constitutionhistory: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2018history: Sweden has four fundamental laws which together make up the Constitution: The Instrument of Government (several previous; latest 1974); The Act of Succession (enacted 1810; changed in 1937 and 1980); The Freedom of the Press Act (many previous; latest in 1949); The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (adopted 1991)amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one third of its members; The Instrument of Government - amended several times, last in 2018; The Act of Succession - changed in 1937, 1980; The Freedom of the Press Act - amended several times, last in 2019; The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression - amended several times, last in 2018 Legal systemcivil law system based on the Swedish modelcivil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal Executive branchchief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)head of government: Prime Minister Sanna MARIN (since 10 December 2019)cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliamentelection results: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.
63% (2019 est. )7. 38% (2018 est. )6. 78% (2019 est. 33% (2018 est. ) Distribution of family income - Gini index27. 4 (2017 est. )22. 2 (1995)28. 8 (2017 est. )25 (1992) Budgetrevenues: 134. 2 billion (2017 est. )expenditures: 135. 6 billion (2017 est. )note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reportingrevenues: 271. )expenditures: 264. 4 billion (2017 est. ) Industriesmetals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothingiron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pul